Limit States (ULS) ----------------include exceeding the
loading-carrying capacity, overturning, sliding, and fracture.
Serviceability Limit States (SLS) ---------include deflection,
vibration, permanent deformation and local structure damage such as cracking.
D ...... Dead load - a permanent load dure to the weight of
E ...... Earthquake load and effects - a rare load due to an
H ...... a permanent load due to lateral earth pressure.
L ...... Live load - a variable load due to intended use and
P ...... Permanent effects caused by pre-stress.
S ...... Variable load due to snow, including ice and associated
T ...... Effects due to contraction, expansion, or deflection
caused by teperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep, ground
settlement, or a combination thereof.
W ...... Wind load - a variable load due to wind.
Load Combinations for ULS
|Case||Principal Loads||Companion Loads
|2||(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5L ||0.5S or 0.4W
|3||(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5S ||0.5L or 0.4W
|4||(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.4W ||0.5L or 0.4S
|5||1.0D + 1.0E ||0.5L + 0.25S