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Structural Loads and Load Combinations
Structural Loads

Ultimate Limit States (ULS) ----------------include exceeding the loading-carrying capacity, overturning, sliding, and fracture.

Serviceability Limit States (SLS) ---------include deflection, vibration, permanent deformation and local structure damage such as cracking.

  D ...... Dead load - a permanent load dure to the weight of building components.
  E ...... Earthquake load and effects - a rare load due to an earthquake.
  H ...... a permanent load due to lateral earth pressure.
  L ...... Live load - a variable load due to intended use and occupancy.
  P ...... Permanent effects caused by pre-stress.
  S ...... Variable load due to snow, including ice and associated rain.
  T ...... Effects due to contraction, expansion, or deflection caused by teperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep, ground settlement, or a combination thereof.
  W ...... Wind load - a variable load due to wind.

CasePrincipal LoadsCompanion Loads
11.4 D-
2(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5L 0.5S or 0.4W
3(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5S 0.5L or 0.4W
4(1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.4W 0.5L or 0.4S
51.0D + 1.0E 0.5L + 0.25S
Load Combinations for ULS
Structural Loads and Load Combinations (NBCC)