3D Render American Canadian General Im-Export
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Basic Wind
q = kPa Cg = Ce = Wind Load h = mm Cp = kPa w = w = I w . q . C e . Cg . Cp
Interior Pressure C pi

Openings mainly in Windward wall: Cpi = 0.7
Openings mainly in Leeward wall: Cpi = 0.5
Openings mainly in walls Perallel to the wind direction: Cpi = -0.7
Openings uniformly distributed in All 4 walls: Cpi = -0.3

Reference height for Ce, one-half of height. When there are dominant openings in the windward wall, use the highest opening.

Exposure Factor C e
 h (m) Ce 0-6 0.9 6-12 1.0 12-20 1.1 20-30 1.2 30-44 1.3 44-64 1.4 64-85 1.5 85-140 1.6 140-240 1.8 240-400 2.0
h - height of the structure above the ground
 Importance Category Iw for ULS Iw for SLS Low 0.8 0.75 Normal 1.0 0.75 High 1.15 0.75 Post-disaster 1.25 0.75
Importance Factor for Wind Load I w Wind Load for Industrial Structures:

1. Tributary width for piping:
Based on the diameter of the largest pipe + 10% of the width of the piperack.
Cf = 0.7, Cg = 2.0

2. Tributary width for cable trays:
Based on the height of the largest tray + 10% of the width of the piperack.
Cf = 2.0, Cg = 2.0

3. Frames for piping and equipment:
Frame wind load + equipment wind load + piping wind load for one axis, acting simultaneously with 50% of the frame wind load along other direction.

4. Vertical Vessels:
Projected width = the diameter of vessel + 5 feet, or the largest piping diameter + diameter of vessel + 3 feet.
Projected height = the diameter of vessel + the height of the vessel.
For h/D, they should be the original values.

5. Horizontal Vessels:
Projected diameter = the diameter of insulated vessel + 1.5 feet.
Cg = 2.0
For transverse wind: Cf = 1.12, factor (0.7) to account for the cylindrical shape.For L/h =10 and d = 40, Cf = 1.6 x 0.7 = 1.12
For longitudinal wind, Cf = 1.5
6. Spheres:
Projected diameter = the diameter of insulated vessel + 1.5 feet.

7. Appurtenances:
F = q . Ce . Cg . Cf . A
Ladders: Cf = 2.0; A = 0.1524 m2/m for ladder without cage, A = 0.2286 m2/m for ladder with cage.
Handrails: Cf = 2.0; Cg = 2.5, A = 0.25 m2/m
Platforms: Cf = 2.0; Cg = 2.5, A = projected area of supporting steel.