Types of Loading or reaction C3.4.1 One-flange loading or reaction - the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or reactions > = 1.5h Two-flange loading or reaction - the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent opposite concentrated loads or reactions < 1.5h End loading or reaction - the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of member < = 1.5h Interior loading or reaction - the distance from the edge of bearing to the end of member > 1.5h Web Cripping of C-Section Web with Holes C3.4.2 Hole reduction factor, R_{c} 1) For end-one flange reaction, R_{c} = 1.01 - 0.325 d_{h}/h + 0.083 x/h < = 1.0, N>= 25.4 mm 2) For interior-one flange reaction R_{c} = 0.9 - 0.047 d_{h}/h + 0.053 x/h < = 1.0, N>= 76 mm The limits for the above equation: d_{h}/h < = 0.7 h/t < = 200 Holes centered at the mid-depth of web Clear distance between holes > = 457 mm Distance between end of member and edge of hole >= d Non-circular holes, corner radii > = 2t Non-circular holes, d_{h} < = 64 mm and L_{h} < = 114 mm Circular holes, diameter < = 152 mm d_{h} > = 14 mm d_{h} - depth of hole h - depth of flat part of web t - thickness d - depth of section L_{h} - length of hole x- nearest distance between web hole and edge of bearing N - bearing length Combined Bending and Web Cripping C3.5 1). shapes having single unreinforced webs: (M_{u} / M_{n}) + 0.91 (P_{u} / P_{n}) < = 1.33 f 2). For shapes having multiple unreinforced webs (two C sections): (M_{u} / M_{n}) + 0.88 (P_{u} / P_{n}) < = 1.46 f M_{u} - required flexural strength P_{u} - required strength for web cripping M_{n} - Nominal flexural strength P_{n} - Nominal strength for web cripping f = 0.75