Characteristic Load Merthod (CLM) uses dimensional
analysis to characterize the nonlinear behavior of laterally loaded piles by
means of relationships among dimensionless variables
The larger the value of Pc, the greater is capacity of the pile to
carry lateral loads, the larger the value of Mc, the greater is
capacity of the pile to carry moments.
for cracked sections, the moment of inertia of concrete is reduced to 40-50% of
the value for the full uncracked concrete section.
In fixed head piles, the maximum moment occurs at the top of piles, in free
head piles, the maximum moment occurs at some depth below ground.
Assumption: the top of pile is at the grade elevation.
Short piles in uniform soil deflect more than calculated using the CLM, and the
bending moment in them are smaller than calculated using CLM. for Short Piles
in Uniform soil, Check Winkler Method
for soil information, use the average properties of the soil within the upper
Limitations of Group Amplification Procedure:
it was developed for uniformly spaced piles, can be used for rectangular groups
with non-uniform spacing.
It doesn't apply to battered piles.
Duncan J. M., Evans L. T., Ooi P. S. K., Lateral Load Analysis of single Piles
and Drilled Shafts, Journal of Geotechnical Engnieering, Vol 120, No. 5
Ooi P. S. K., Duncan J. M., Lateral Load Analysis of Groups of Piles and Drilled
Shafts, Journal of Geotechnical Engnieering, Vol 120, No. 6
Mokwa R. L., Duncan J. M.(2001) Lateral Loaded Pile Group Effects and P-y
Multipliers ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, N0 113, pp.728-742