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Axial Tension
Regular Bolt Holes
 Bolt Diameter (in.) Standard Hole Diameter (in.) Oversize Hole Diameter (in.) 1/2 9/16 5/8 5/8 11/16 13/16 3/4 13/16 15/16 7/8 15/16 1 1/16 1 1 1/16 1 1/4 ≥1 1/8 d + 1/16 d + 5/16
 Bolt Diameter (in.) Width (in.) Length (in.) 1/2 9/16 11/16 5/8 11/16 7/8 3/4 13/16 1 7/8 15/16 1 1/8 1 1 1/16 1 5/16 ≥1 1/8 d + 1/16 d + 3/8
 Bolt Diameter (in.) Width (in.) Length (in.) 1/2 9/16 1 1/4 5/8 11/16 1 9/16 3/4 13/16 1 7/8 7/8 15/16 2 3/16 1 1 1/16 2 1/2 ≥1 1/8 d + 1/16 2.5 x d
Short Slot Dimensions Long Slot Dimensions
Tension Member Design

Slendness: k. L / r <= 300

Gross area
The gross area Ag of a member at any point is the sum of the products of the thickness and the gross width of each element measured normal to the axis of the member.

Net Area
Net area An of a member is the sum of the products of the thickness and the net width of each element.
For a part in any diagonal or zigzag line, the additional quantity is:   s2.t / (4g)

s = longitudinal center-to-center spacing (pitch) of any two consecutive holes.
g = transverse center-to-center spacing (gage) between fastner gage lines.

Effective Net Area, Reduction-Shear Lag Coefficient (U)

Bolts:
Ae = An . U

U - reduction coefficient = 1 - x/L
x - connection eccentricity

Welds:
(a) When the tension load is transmitted only by longitudinal welds to other than a plate member or by longitudinal welds in combination with transverse welds:
Ae = Ag . U

U - reduction coefficient = 1 - x/L
Ag - gross area of member

(b) When the tension load is transmitted only by transverse welds:
Ae = A . U

U = 1.0
A - area of directly connected elements

(c) When the tension load is transmitted to a plate only by longitudinal welds along both edges at the end of the plate:
Ae = Ag . U

Ag - gross area of member

for L >= 2w ...........................U= 1.0
for 2w > L >= 1.5w ..................U= 0.87
for 1.5w > L >= w ..................U= 0.75

L = length of weld
w = plate width (distance between welds)

Design Strength for Tension:

Tensile Yielding:
Pn = Fy.Ag

ft = 0.9 (LRFD)
Ot = 1.67 (ASD)
Tensile Rupture:
Pn = Fu. Ae

ft = 0.75 (LRFD)
Ot = 2.0 (ASD)

Design Strength for Shear:

Shear Yielding:
Rn = 0.6 Fy. Ag

f = 1.0 (LRFD)
O = 1.5 (ASD)

Shear Rupture:
Rn = 0.6 Fu. Anv

f = 0.75 (LRFD)
O = 2.0 (ASD)

Block Shear Rupture Strength:

Rn = 0.6 Fu.Anv + Ubs. Fu.Ant <= 0.6 Fy .Agv + Ubs. Fu.Ant

f = 0.75 (LRFD)
O = 2.0 (ASD)

Ant = net area subject to tension
Anv = net area subject to shear
Agv = gross area subject to shear
Ubs = 1.0 when tension stress is uniform, Ubs = 0.5 when tension stress is non-uniform Reference: AISC 14 th Edition Ch. D, Ch. J4